The entire stretch of the Corbett National Park has the largest environmental situations by way of her geographical location, physical features and climatic types. As a result it displays the widest variety of biomes. The diverse geographical feature of Corbett has given birth to an equally varied set of life communities. Such unique habitat, along with the distinct flora and fauna forms recognizable ecosystems that can be experienced when you travel through Corbett.
Mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. It is formed through tectonic forces. Due to irregular variation in peak altitude, slope, temperature, relief and the amount of light received there is a great diversity in mountain habitats. We observe unique characteristics in mountain plants and animal communities residents in the foothills of Himalayas. However, ecosystems around the mountains are unstable.
Mountain habitats reflect definite character of flora and fauna in terms of altitude. A number of different types of plant communities can be observed in the area having ascending mountain peak. The foothills have usually broadleaves forest while we go higher up coniferous trees can be seen. The same distribution can also be seen in Corbett. The downstream areas of the Corbett consist of Saal forest while we go up we find progressive belts of mixed forests of Chir Pine, Oak and Rhododendron. Accordingly, the flora and fauna of the Corbett also varies in the same manner.
After the independence the population of tiger in India suffered a heavy decline due to many reasons. The primary reason was noticed as deforestation activity done by local people to earn their livelihood. Diversion of land was started just to accelerate the development activities like irrigation, hydro-electric projects, road/rail construction. The early king's hobbies were sport hunting and poaching of tigers for trophies. These activities led the sudden decrease of tiger population in Corbett.
In Corbett the sal forests are distributed around Panod nallah, Amgadi sot, Sajgadi sot, Gajar sot and Sultan, and also near Dhikala, Khinanauli, Bijrani and Mailani.
The major landscape of the Corbett is dominated by the Sal forests but beside that there occur another distinct ecosystem near rivers and streams. It comprises of Khair and Shisham trees which grow on sandy, gravelly areas all along the Ramganga and other water bodies.
Chaur is the most unique vegetation habitat of Corbett. It forms the vital wildlife habitats that were once used for agriculture. Patil Dun area of the park forms the major Chaurs of Corbett. Other important area of the park includes: Dhikala, Bijrani, Phulai, Khinanuli, Paterpani, Mohanpani etc.
It is quite interesting to explore the vegetation type of Corbett National Park. We find some of the Corbett vegetation is covered with bamboo forest. Main species existing is named as Male bamboo having clustered stout stems and shining papery stem sheaths.